In July , Aguinaldo established the Biak-na-Bato Republicand issued a proclamation stating the following demands Expulsion of the. After a well-earned rest, Aguinaldo and his men proceeded to Biak-na-Bato, San Miguel de Mayumo, where he established his headquarters. The Republic of Biak-na-Bato (Tagalog: Republika ng Biak-na-Bato, Spanish: República de Biac-na-Bató), officially referred to in its constitution as the Republic.

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But any window baro peace was also a welcome moment for our exhausted revolutionary heroes who needed a time to restart their cause against Spain.

It was time to regroup. After Andres Bonifacio, Supremo of the underground revolutionary group Katipunanpassed away, the leadership of the group was taken by another prominent Katipunan leader Emilio Bjak.

At this point, with the Katipunan itself in tatters because of an internal conflict among chapters, Emilio Aguinaldo and the revolutionary troops were being routed by the Spanish soldiers. Luckily, Emilio was able to escape with men to a place called Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan. Biak-na-Bato was a very ideal hideout for Emilio and his troops because the nq had cave network and river systems. In other words, it was baho ideal for its natural defensive properties, something the Katipunan itself cannot create with such few men and materials in their hands.

General Emilio Aguinaldo would soon be the first president of the Republic of the Philippines.

8: Biak-na-Bato – 10 Most Short-lived Countries | HowStuffWorks

In Biak-na-Bato, Emilio declared a republic complete with a constitution… the first ever republic of the Philippines. The republic also allowed the Katipunan to pinpoint new goals to make their fight more organised.


Some of these goals include:. Governor-general Primo de Rivera then planned to forge a peace pact with Emilio.

However, the governor-general was really biding his time for another offensive against the Emilio and his repubic. This was accomplished by shuttle diplomacy: Paterno had to go back and forth between Manila and Bulacan to negotiate for the two sides. The first two documents of the Pact were signed on 14 December and the third was signed on 15 December.

The agreement included the following provisions:. Although both sides signed the truce, no one really believed the other would follow the agreement to the letter. Sure, Emilio was able to reach Hong Kong in good hands and he received the first installment of the payment worthMexican dollars. But he used this money to purchase batoo weapons needed hato the revolutionary movement. The rest of the payment was not received.

In addition, Spanish and Filipino troops did not honour the peace pact as provided by the truce. Many fights between the two groups still sparked all over the country, with most of these the result of lack of communication between the parties involved in the truce and the men on the front lines.

Pact of Biak-na-Bato

Bigger things were in motion on the other side of the world, however, as America was moving to take over Spanish colonies from Spain. The story of Biak-na-Bato may be rrpublic of the shortest chapters in the period of the Philippine-Spanish wars.

The truce provided a small window of opportunity that helped the revolutionary leaders strategise their movements against the repubpic. It was a risky move, yes, because peace meant Spain was also afforded time to regroup.

Biak na Bato Republic | Pact of Biak na Bato

But decisions like these have to be made to push the struggle forward. Can you imagine yourself, a leader of the biggest group in the Philippines by proxy an president of the biggest Filipino group that had the power to change the system at that point turn your back on your countrymen and leave? But men like Emilio were needed to forge a new direction for what seemed like a tug-of-war between two factions.


A new road had to be paved to finally win the revolution. It just so happened that at this point in history, America came in and forged that road for us.

Not exactly to our liking, if you can recall from our last hiStory piece. We can call this intrusion by the Americans fate. Do you think we could have won the revolution alone, without the help of the Americans? If you were Aguinaldo, would you have also accepted exile for a chance to restock weapons, or stay in the Philippines where you were most needed?

Would you have also called for this truce at this moment in the revolution? Share your ideas by commenting below! Mail will not be published required.

Does this qualify her as state witness? The truce of Biak-na-Bato. Philippines HiStory this Week: The truce of Biak-na-Bato 14 December The date is 14 December Biak-na-Bato, the biaj Spain and the Philippines signed a truce.

Republic of Biak-na-Bato

Governor-general Primo de Rivera. Spanish soldiers executing Filipino revolutionaries during the war. Philippine and European Times.