THE title al-Khulafa ar:Rashidun, or ‘the rightly. guided Khalifas’, is given to the four who immedi·. ~te1Y”’succeeded Mu1:Iammad-Abu Bakr,’Umar. ‘lJthman and . Those Caliphs who truly followed in the Prophet’s foot steps are called ‘The Rightly-Guided Caliphs’ (Al-Khulafa-ur Rashidun in Arabic). KHULAFA-E-RASHIDUN Khulafa or Caliphs are the leaders of an Islamic state or The period of rule of the Khulafa E Rashid or Khulafa ar Rashidun was of.
|Country:||Moldova, Republic of|
|Published (Last):||8 September 2009|
|PDF File Size:||19.52 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||3.10 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
The Rashidun Caliphate Arabic: It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs successors of Muhammad after his death in CE AH This term is not used in Shia Islam as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate. The Rashidun Caliphate is characterized by a twenty-five year period of rapid military expansionfollowed by a five-year period of internal strife. The Rashidun Army at its peak numbered more ihulafamen.
By the s, the caliphate in rsahidun to the Arabian Peninsula had subjugated the Levantto the Transcaucasus in the north; North Africa from Egypt to present-day Tunisia in the west; and the Iranian plateau to parts of Central Asia and South Asia in the west. The caliphate arose out of the death of Muhammad in CE and the subsequent khuoafa over the succession to his leadership.
Abu Bakra close companion of Muhammad from the Banu Taym clan, khulaafa elected the first Rashidun leader and began the conquest of the Arabian Peninsula. He ruled from to his death in Abu Bakr was succeeded by Umarhis appointed successor from the Banu Adi clan, who began the conquest of Persia from toleading to the defeat of the Sassanid Empire.
Umar was assassinated in  and was succeeded by Uthmanwho was elected by a six-person committee arranged by Khulzfa. Under Uthman began the conquest of ArmeniaFars and Khorasan. The war was primarily between those who supported Uthman’s cousin and governor of the Levant, Muawiyahand those who supported the caliph Ali. The civil war permanently consolidated the divide between Sunni and Shia Muslims, with Shia Muslims believing Ali to be the first rightful caliph and Imam after Muhammad.
The war was decided in favour of the faction of Muawiyah, who established the Umayyad Caliphate in After Muhammad ‘s death in CE, his Medinan companions debated which of them should succeed him in running the affairs of the Muslims while Muhammad’s household was busy with his burial.
First he would have to subdue the Arabian tribes which had claimed that although they pledged allegiance to Muhammad and accepted Rasjidun, they owed nothing to Abu Bakr. As a caliph, Abu Bakr was not a monarch and never claimed such a title; nor did any of his three successors.
Rather, their election and leadership were based upon merit. Notably, according to Sunnis, all four Rashidun Caliphs were connected to Muhammad through marriage, were early converts to Islam,  were among ten who were explicitly promised paradisewere his rashiduun companions by association and support and were often highly praised by Muhammad and delegated roles of leadership within the nascent Muslim community.
According to Sunni Muslims, the term Rashidun Caliphate is derived from a famous  hadith of Muhammad, where he foretold that the caliphate after him would last for 30 years  the length of the Rashidun Caliphate and would then be followed by kingship. Shortly before his death, Muhammad called all the Muslims who had rashisun him on the final Hajj pilgrimage to gather around at a place known fashidun Ghadir Khumm.
Muhammad gave a long sermon, part of which states:. Reflect on the Quran and comprehend its verses. Look into its clear verses and do not rashiidun its ambiguous parts, for by Allah, none shall be able to explain to you its warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the raxhidun that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself, and lifted his armthe one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his Mawla, this Ali is his Mawla ; and he is Ali Ibn Rashicun Talib, my brother, the executor of my will Wasiyyiwhose appointment as your guardian and leader has been tashidun down to me from Rasidun, the mighty and the majestic.
This event has been narrated by both Shia and Sunni sources. Further, after the sermon, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman are all said to have given rashldun allegiance to Ali, a fact that is also reported by both Shia and Sunni sources. In response to these worries, Muhammad said: You are miserable because I have appointed Usama as your general, and you are raising questions if he is qualified to lead you in war.
I know you are the same people who had raised the same question about his father. By God, Usama is qualified to be your general just as his father was qualified to be a general. Now obey his orders and go.
May Allah curse those men who do not go with him. It is also noted that this was the only battle expedition where Muhammad urged his companions to go to the battle no matter what; for other battles, if someone was unable to go to the fight, Muhammad would let them stay at home. It has been pointed out in history that the fact that Muhammad ordered his companions, but not his family, to leave Medina right before he knew he was about to die  is proof that he did not intend for his companions to decide on his succession.
That matter had already been decided at Ghadir Khumm. However, after Muhammad passed away, a group of Muslims left Ali and gathered at Saqifa. This was followed by an attack on the house of Ali and Fatimah in an attempt to defeat any opposition to Abu Bakr. Troubles emerged soon after Muhammad’s death, threatening the unity and stability of the new community and state.
In some cases, entire tribes apostatised. Others merely withheld zakatthe alms tax, without formally challenging Islam. Many tribal leaders made claims to prophethood; some made it during the lifetime of Muhammad. The apostasy of al-Yamama was led by another supposed prophet, Musaylimah who arose before Muhammad’s death; other centers of the rebels were in the NajdEastern Arabia known then as al-Bahrayn and South Arabia known as al-Yaman and including the Mahra.
Many tribes claimed that they had submitted to Muhammad and that with Muhammad’s death, their allegiance was ended. Abu Bakr planned his strategy accordingly.
He divided the Muslim army into several corps. The strongest corps, and the primary force of the Muslims, was the corps of Khalid ibn al-Walid. This corps was used to fight the most powerful of the rebel forces. Other corps were given areas of secondary importance in which to bring the less dangerous apostate tribes to submission. Abu Bakr’s plan was first to clear Najd and Western Arabia near Medina, then tackle Malik ibn Nuwayrah and his forces between the Najd and al-Bahrayn, and finally concentrate against the most dangerous enemy, Musaylimah and his allies in al-Yamama.
The year 12 Hijri dawned on 18 March with the Arabian peninsula united under the caliph in Medina. Once the rebellions had been put down, Abu Bakr began a war of conquest. Whether or not he intended a full-out imperial conquest is hard to say; he did, however, set in motion a historical trajectory that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history.
Abu Bakr began with Iraqthe richest province of the Sasanian Empire.
O Abu Bakr, may Allah have Mercy upon you. You were the closest companion and friend of the Messenger of Allah salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ; you were a comfort to him; you were the one he trusted most.
If he had a secret, he would tell it to you; and if he needed to consult someone regarding a matter, he would consult you. You were the first of your people to embrace Islam, and you were the most sincere of them in your faith.
Your faith was stronger than any other person’s, as was the degree to which you feared Allah. You cared most for both the Messenger rashiduj Allah salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Islam. Of all people, you were the best Companion to the Mhulafa of Allah salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ; you possessed the best qualities; you had the best past; you ranked the highest; and you were closest to him.
And of all people you resembled the Messenger of Allah salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam the most in terms of his guidance and demeanor. Your ranking was higher than anyone else’s, and the Prophet salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam honored you and held you in higher esteem than anyone else.
On behalf of the Messenger of Allah and Islam, may Allah reward you rasihdun the best of rewards. When the people disbelieved in the Messenger of Allah salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam you believed in him. Throughout his life, you were both his eyes with which he salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallamand his ears with which he heard.
Allah has named you truthful in his book when He said:. When rashiduj were stingy in their support for the Messenger of Allah salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam you comforted him. And when people sat still, you stood side by side with the Messenger of Allah salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallamfacing the same hardships that he faced.
In times of hardship, you were truly a good and noble Companion of his. You were the ‘second of two’, his Companion in the Cave; and the one upon whom As-Sakeenah descended. You were his Companion during the migration and you were his successor regarding the religion of Allah and His nation. And truly good successor you proved to be when the people apostatized.
You did what no other Khaleefah khluafa a Prophet did before you. You stood up firmly and bravely when his other Companions lost their resolve and became soft. And when they became weak, you adhered to the methodology of the Messenger of Allah salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. You truly were as the Messenger of Allah salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: Not a single one of them had any reason to dislike you, to be suspicious of you, or to hold you in contempt The weak and humble you have always treated as strong and honorable, making sure you gave them what was rightfully theirs.
And in this regard, you have treated relatives and strangers equally. Of all people, you respect those who are most obedient rashifun Allah and who fear Him the most. In your overall character, you embody truth and compassion. Your speech has always been characterized by the qualities of wisdom and decisiveness. And you have always struck a noble balance between gentleness and firmness.
You have always based khulafq decisions on knowedge, and once you have made your decisions, you have always kept a firm resolve to execute them Verily to Allah do we belong, and to Him is our return.
We are pleased with, and we submit to, Allah’s decree. And by Allah, other than the death of the Messenger of Allah salAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Muslims have never been afflicted with a greater calamity than the calamity of your death. You have always been a protector, a sanctuary, and source of honor for this religion.
And may He not lead us astray after you. People had gathered around ‘Ali and listened to his speech until he was finished.
Rashidun | caliphs |
Then they all cried with raised voices, and they all responded in unison to ‘Ali’s speech, saying, ‘Indeed, you have spoken the truth. Despite the initial reservations of his advisers, Abu Bakr recognised the military and political prowess in Umar and desired him to succeed as caliph. The decision was enshrined in his will, and on the death of Abu Bakr inUmar was confirmed in office. The new caliph continued the war of conquests begun by his predecessor, pushing further into the Sasanian Rashiun Empirenorth into Dashidun territory, and west into Egypt.
It is an important fact to note that Umar never participated in any battle as a commander of a Muslim Army throughout his rwshidun. These were regions of great wealth controlled by powerful states, but long internecine conflict between Byzantines and Sasanians had left both sides militarily exhausted, and the Islamic armies easily prevailed against them.
Bythey had brought all of MesopotamiaSyria and Palestine under the control of the Rashidun Caliphate; Egypt was conquered byand the entire Persian Empire by While the caliphate continued its rapid expansion, Umar laid the foundations of a political structure that could hold it khulaca.